Coronavirus questions answered
What is coronavirus? How is it transmitted? What are the symptoms like and how dangerous is it? Dr Monica Mahajan, Director, Internal Medicine from Max Healthcare, answers all these questions and more. Watch now!
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, the viruses cause respiratory infections which are typically mild including the common cold but rarer forms like SARS and MERS can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens they can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.
How dangerous is new coronavirus and how does it spread?
The virus has killed more than 100 people in China and has infected more than 4,520 globally, mostly in China. Chinese authorities have closed off almost 20 cities in efforts to contain a new coronavirus that has killed at least 170 people in recent weeks, with cases confirmed in several countries in Asia and beyond.
Coronavirus: A timeline
The spread of the coronavirus from the Chinese city of Wuhan is well underway, with 7,678 confirmed cases in mainland China as of 29 January. Elsewhere, the virus has already been confirmed in 19 other countries/territories, totaling 105 cases. So far, Johns Hopkins University has tracked 170 deaths caused by the pandemic.
The Guardian’s health editor, Sarah Boseley, answers some of the most common and pressing questions surrounding the recent coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China
The nCoV coronavirus has killed 170 people in China and infected 7,711. Around 100 cases have been confirmed outside China. Worryingly, it seems to transmit more readily between humans than Sars, a similar coronavirus that killed almost 800 people after it originated in China 17 years ago.
——————Corona Disease Basics——————–
What is 2019 Novel Coronavirus?
A: The 2019 Novel Coronavirus, or 2019-nCoV, is a new respiratory virus first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Learn about 2019 Novel Coronavirus.
What is a novel coronavirus?
A: A novel coronavirus (CoV) is a new coronavirus that has not been previously identified.
What is the source of 2019-nCoV?
A: Public health officials and partners are working hard to identify the source of the 2019-nCoV. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some causing illness in people and others that circulate among animals, including camels, cats and bats. Analysis of the genetic tree of this virus is ongoing to know the specific source of the virus. SARS, another coronavirus that emerged to infect people, came from civet cats, while MERS, another coronavirus that emerged to infect people, came from camels. More information about the source and spread of 2019-nCoV is available on the 2019-nCoV Situation Summary: Source and Spread of the Virus.
How does the virus spread?
A: This virus probably originally emerged from an animal source but now seems to be spreading from person-to-person. It’s important to note that person-to-person spread can happen on a continuum. Some viruses are highly contagious (like measles), while other viruses are less so. At this time, it’s unclear how easily or sustainably this virus is spreading between people. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.
Is 2019-nCoV the same as the MERS-CoV or SARS virus?
A: No. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some causing illness in people and others that circulate among animals, including camels, cats and bats. The recently emerged 2019-nCoV is not the same as the coronavirus that causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) or the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). However, genetic analyses suggest this virus emerged from a virus related to SARS. There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.
How can I help protect myself?
A: Visit the 2019-nCoV Prevention and Treatment page to learn about how to protect yourself from respiratory illnesses, like 2019-nCoV.
What should I do if I had close contact with someone who has 2019-nCoV?
A: There is information for people who have had close contact with a person confirmed to have, or being evaluated for, 2019-nCoV infection available online.
- “Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release” (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- “2017.012-015S” (xlsx). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric R, Enjuanes L, Gorbalenya AE, Holmes KV, Perlman S, Poon L, Rottier PJ, Talbot PJ, Woo PC, Ziebuhr J (2011). “Family Coronaviridae“. In AMQ King, E Lefkowitz, MJ Adams, EB Carstens (eds.). Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, Oxford. pp. 806–828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6.
- International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (24 August 2010). “ICTV Master Species List 2009 – v10” (xls).
- “Coronavirus: Common Symptoms, Preventive Measures, & How to Diagnose It”. Caringly Yours. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Geller C, Varbanov M, Duval RE (November 2012). “Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies”. Viruses. 4 (11): 3044–3068. doi:10.3390/v4113044. PMC 3509683. PMID 23202515.
- Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC (September 2005). “Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor”. Science. 309 (5742): 1864–1868. Bibcode:2005Sci…309.1864L. doi:10.1126/science.1116480. PMID 16166518.
- Sexton NR, Smith EC, Blanc H, Vignuzzi M, Peersen OB, Denison MR (August 2016). “Homology-Based Identification of a Mutation in the Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase That Confers Resistance to Multiple Mutagens”. Journal of Virology. 90 (16): 7415–7428. doi:10.1128/JVI.00080-16. PMC 4984655. PMID 27279608.
- Fehr AR, Perlman S (2015). “Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis”. Coronaviruses. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1282. pp. 1–23. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1. ISBN 978-1-4939-2437-0. PMC 4369385. PMID 25720466.
- Cruz JL, Sola I, Becares M, Alberca B, Plana J, Enjuanes L, Zuñiga S (June 2011). “Coronavirus gene 7 counteracts host defenses and modulates virus virulence”. PLoS Pathogens. 7(6): e1002090. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002090. PMC 3111541. PMID 21695242.
- Cruz JL, Becares M, Sola I, Oliveros JC, Enjuanes L, Zúñiga S (September 2013). “Alphacoronavirus protein 7 modulates host innate immune response”. Journal of Virology. 87 (17): 9754–67. doi:10.1128/JVI.01032-13. PMC 3754097. PMID 23824792.
- Wertheim JO, Chu DK, Peiris JS, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Poon LL (June 2013). “A case for the ancient origin of coronaviruses”. Journal of Virology. 87 (12): 7039–7045. doi:10.1128/JVI.03273-12. PMC 3676139. PMID 23596293.
- Woo PC, Lau SK, Lam CS, Lau CC, Tsang AK, Lau JH, Bai R, Teng JL, Tsang CC, Wang M, Zheng BJ, Chan KH, Yuen KY (April 2012). “Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus”. Journal of Virology. 86 (7): 3995–4008. doi:10.1128/JVI.06540-11. PMC 3302495. PMID 22278237.
- Bidokhti MR, Tråvén M, Krishna NK, Munir M, Belák S, Alenius S, Cortey M (September 2013). “Evolutionary dynamics of bovine coronaviruses: natural selection pattern of the spike gene implies adaptive evolution of the strains”. The Journal of General Virology. 94 (Pt 9): 2036–2049. doi:10.1099/vir.0.054940-0. PMID 23804565.
- Vijgen L, Keyaerts E, Moës E, Thoelen I, Wollants E, Lemey P, Vandamme AM, Van Ranst M (February 2005). “Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus transmission event”. Journal of Virology. 79 (3): 1595–1604. doi:10.1128/jvi.79.3.1595-1604.2005. PMC 544107. PMID 15650185.
- Lau SK, Lee P, Tsang AK, Yip CC, Tse H, Lee RA, So LY, Lau YL, Chan KH, Woo PC, Yuen KY (November 2011). “Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 reveals evolution of different genotypes over time and recent emergence of a novel genotype due to natural recombination”. Journal of Virology. 85(21): 11325–11337. doi:10.1128/JVI.05512-11. PMC 3194943. PMID 21849456.
- Lau SK, Li KS, Tsang AK, Lam CS, Ahmed S, Chen H, Chan KH, Woo PC, Yuen KY (August 2013). “Genetic characterization of Betacoronavirus lineage C viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein of pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese pipistrelle: implications for the origin of the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. Journal of Virology. 87 (15): 8638–8650. doi:10.1128/JVI.01055-13. PMC 3719811. PMID 23720729.
- Huynh J, Li S, Yount B, Smith A, Sturges L, Olsen JC, Nagel J, Johnson JB, Agnihothram S, Gates JE, Frieman MB, Baric RS, Donaldson EF (December 2012). “Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63”. Journal of Virology. 86 (23): 12816–12825. doi:10.1128/JVI.00906-12. PMC 3497669. PMID 22993147.
- Vijaykrishna D, Smith GJ, Zhang JX, Peiris JS, Chen H, Guan Y (April 2007). “Evolutionary insights into the ecology of coronaviruses”. Journal of Virology. 81 (8): 4012–4020. doi:10.1128/jvi.02605-06. PMC 1866124. PMID 17267506.
- Gouilh MA, Puechmaille SJ, Gonzalez JP, Teeling E, Kittayapong P, Manuguerra JC (October 2011). “SARS-Coronavirus ancestor’s foot-prints in South-East Asian bat colonies and the refuge theory”. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 11 (7): 1690–702. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.06.021. PMID 21763784.
- Cui J, Han N, Streicker D, Li G, Tang X, Shi Z, Hu Z, Zhao G, Fontanet A, Guan Y, Wang L, Jones G, Field HE, Daszak P, Zhang S (October 2007). “Evolutionary relationships between bat coronaviruses and their hosts”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): 1526–1532. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070448. PMC 2851503. PMID 18258002.
- Crossley BM, Mock RE, Callison SA, Hietala SK (December 2012). “Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E”. Viruses. 4 (12): 3689–3700. doi:10.3390/v4123689. PMC 3528286. PMID 23235471.
- Liu P, Shi L, Zhang W, He J, Liu C, Zhao C, Kong SK, Loo JF, Gu D, Hu L (November 2017). “Prevalence and genetic diversity analysis of human coronaviruses among cross-border children”. Virology Journal. 14 (1): 230. doi:10.1186/s12985-017-0896-0. PMC 5700739. PMID 29166910.
- Forgie S, Marrie TJ (February 2009). “Healthcare-associated atypical pneumonia”. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 30 (1): 67–85. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1119811. PMID 19199189.
- “Laboratory testing of human suspected cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection. Interim guidance, 10 January 2020” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- “Novel Coronavirus 2019, Wuhan, China | CDC”. www.cdc.gov. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- “Pneumonia of unknown cause – China”. World Health Organization. 5 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Corman VM, Muth D, Niemeyer D, Drosten C (2018). “Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses”. Advances in Virus Research. 100: 163–188. doi:10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.01.001. ISBN 978-0-12-815201-0. PMID 29551135.
- Doucleef M (26 September 2012). “Scientists Go Deep On Genes Of SARS-Like Virus”. Associated Press. Archivedfrom the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 27 September2012.
- Falco M (24 September 2012). “New SARS-like virus poses medical mystery”. CNN Health. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- “New SARS-like virus found in Middle East”. Al-Jazeera. 24 September 2012. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Kelland K (28 September 2012). “New virus not spreading easily between people: WHO”. Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Nouveau coronavirus – Point de situation : Un nouveau cas d’infection confirmé Archived 8 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Novel coronavirus – Status report: A new case of confirmed infection) 12 May 2013, social-sante.gouv.fr
- CDC (2 August 2019). “MERS Transmission”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- “Novel coronavirus infection – update”. World Health Association. 22 May 2013. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- CDC (2 August 2019). “MERS in the U.S.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (8 June 2015). “MERS Virus’s Path: One Man, Many South Korean Hospitals”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 1 March2017.
- “Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)”. WHO. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- “WHO Statement Regarding Cluster of Pneumonia Cases in Wuhan, China”. www.who.int. 9 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- “2019 Novel Coronavirus infection (Wuhan, China): Outbreak update”. Canada.ca. 21 January 2020.
- Cohen, Jon (26 January 2020). “Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally”. ScienceMagAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science. (AAAS). Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
- “Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS”. gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com. The Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) is a research collective housed within the Department of Civil and Systems Engineering (CaSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). 28 January 2020. Archivedfrom the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Kotyk, Alyse (28 January 2020). “B.C. confirms province’s first presumptive positive case of new coronavirus”. CTV News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- James Griffiths; Nectar Gan; Tara John; Amir Vera. “Wuhan coronavirus death toll rises, as city imposes transport lockdown”. CNN.
- “China virus death toll mounts to 25, infections spread”. Reuters. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- “ClinicalKey”. www.clinicalkey.com. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Luo, Guangxiang (George); Gao, Shou‐Jiang (2020). “Global Health Concern Stirred by Emerging Viral Infections”. Journal of Medical Virology. doi:10.1002/jmv.25683. PMID 31967329.
- “No, the Wuhan Virus Is Not a ‘Snake Flu‘“. Wired. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Eschner, Kat (28 January 2020). “We’re still not sure where the Wuhan coronavirus really came from”. Popular Science. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- Murphy, FA; Gibbs, EPJ; Horzinek, MC; Studdart MJ (1999). Veterinary Virology. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 495–508. ISBN 978-0-12-511340-3.
- Bande F, Arshad SS, Bejo MH, Moeini H, Omar AR (2015). “Progress and challenges toward the development of vaccines against avian infectious bronchitis”. Journal of Immunology Research. 2015: 1–12. doi:10.1155/2015/424860. PMC 4411447. PMID 25954763.
- Murray J (16 April 2014). “What’s New With Ferret FIP-like Disease?” (xls). Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Weiss SR, Navas-Martin S (December 2005). “Coronavirus pathogenesis and the emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 69 (4): 635–664. doi:10.1128/MMBR.69.4.635-664.2005. PMC 1306801. PMID 16339739.
- “Rat Coronavirus – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics”. www.sciencedirect.com.
- Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin Archived 31 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Peng Zhou, Hang Fan, Tian Lan, Xing-Lou Yang, Wei-Feng Shi, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhu, Ya-Wei Zhang, Qing-Mei Xie, Shailendra Mani, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Bei Li, Jin-Man Li, Hua Guo, Guang-Qian Pei, Xiao-Ping An, Jun-Wei Chen, Ling Zhou, Kai-Jie Mai, Zi-Xian Wu, Di Li, Danielle E. Anderson, Li-Biao Zhang, Shi-Yue Li, Zhi-Qiang Mi, Tong-Tong He, Feng Cong, Peng-Ju Guo, Ren Huang, Yun Luo, Xiang-Ling Liu, Jing Chen, Yong Huang, Qiang Sun, Xiang-Li-Lan Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Shao-Zhen Xing, Yan-Shan Chen, Yuan Sun, Juan Li, Peter Daszak, Lin-Fa Wang, Zheng-Li Shi, Yi-Gang Tong & Jing-Yun Ma, Nature, 5 April 2018.
- Tirotta E, Carbajal KS, Schaumburg CS, Whitman L, Lane TE (July 2010). “Cell replacement therapies to promote remyelination in a viral model of demyelination”. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 224 (1–2): 101–107. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.05.013. PMC 2919340. PMID 20627412.
- “Merck Veterinary Manual”. Merck Veterinary Manual. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- “Enteric Coronavirus”. Diseases of Research Animals. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 24 January2020.